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We thus organized a large-scale interlaboratory study within iGEM to compare three candidate OD calibration protocols: a colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, the de facto standard assay for determining viable cell count; comparison with colloidal silica (LUDOX) and water, previously used for normalizing fluorescence measurements9; and serial dilution of silica microspheres, a new protocol based on a recent study of microbial growth7. Overall, this study demonstrates that serial dilution of silica microspheres is by far the best of these three protocols under the conditions tested, allowing highly precise, accurate, and robust calibration that is easily assessed for quality control and can also evaluate the effective linear range of an instrument. We thus recommend use of silica microsphere calibration within the linear range of OD measurements for cells with compact shape and matching refractive index. Adoption of this recommendation is expected to enable effective use of OD data for estimation of cell count, comparison of plate reader measurements with single-cell measurements such as flow cytometry, improved replicability, and better cross-laboratory comparison of data.
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We assessed the robustness of the calibration protocols under test in two ways: replicate precision and residuals. Replicate precision can be evaluated simply in terms of the similarity of values for each technical replicate of a protocol. The smaller the coefficient of variation (i.e., ratio of standard deviation to mean), the more precise the protocol. With regards to residuals, on the other hand, we considered the modeled mechanism that underlies each calibration method and assess how well it fits the data. Here, the residual is the distance between each measured value provided by a team and the predicted value of a model fit using that same set of data (see Methods for details of each mechanism model and residual calculations). The smaller the residual value, the more precise the protocol. Moreover, the more similar the replicate precision and residuals across teams, the more robust the protocol is to variations in execution conditions.
Reproducibility and accuracy of the calibration protocols can be evaluated through their application to calibration of fluorescence from E. coli, as normalized by calibrated OD measurements. Figure 4 shows the fluorescence values computed for each of the three fluorescence/OD calibration combinations, as well as for calibrated flow cytometry, excluding data with poor calibration or outlier values for colony growth or positive control fluorescence (for details see Methods on determining validity of E. coli data). Overall, the lab-to-lab variation was workably small, with the geometric mean of the geometric standard deviations for each test device being 2.4-fold for CFU calibration, 2.21-fold for LUDOX/water calibration, and 2.21-fold for microsphere dilution calibration. These values are quite similar to those previously reported in ref. 9, which reported a 2.1-fold geometric standard deviation for LUDOX/water.
Signals of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are present in beta cells of individuals with type 1  and type 2 diabetes [6, 7], and several monogenic forms of diabetes are caused by mutations in genes involved in the response to ER stress (also known as the unfolded protein response) . ER stress contributes to progressive beta cell dysfunction and death in these different forms of diabetes . It can be reproduced in vitro by exposure of human islets to proinflammatory cytokines, palmitate alone or in combination with high glucose, and chemical ER stressors such as thapsigargin [1, 5]. ER stress is defined as the accumulation of mis- or unfolded proteins in the ER lumen, and if severe and unresolved it will lead to beta cell apoptosis . Agents that restore ER homeostasis potentially provide an interesting therapeutic strategy in diabetes. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and imatinib have been shown to ameliorate ER stress and protect beta cells in pre-clinical models of diabetes [2, 9,10,11], and they are being tested to delay beta cell loss after the onset of type 1 diabetes [2, 12]. The initial results for imatinib show modest but transient beta cell protection  which may be due to the lack of concomitant modulation of the immune system .
Exercise training should hence be tested as a non-pharmacological intervention in people at risk of developing either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, not only for the benefits on muscle, liver, fat and potentially brain, but also to directly protect pancreatic beta cells. Exercise is a safe approach which may help individuals at the early stages of diabetes to preserve endogenous insulin secretion and beta cell health, in addition to conferring cardiovascular and a plethora of other health benefits.
ACdB contributed to the design and performance of the experiments, investigation and formal analysis, and wrote, revised and edited the manuscript. AEM, JMC-J and AC performed experiments and revised the article. CS, JC, VF, MC and MK contributed to create the training protocols; recruited, screened and randomised participants; performed maximal incremental tests; monitored training sessions; organised blood sampling; and revised the article. VF, MK, MC and DLE contributed to the original idea and the design, supervision and interpretation of the experiments. DLE wrote and revised the manuscript and MC edited it. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript. ACdB is the guarantor of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
sometimes this error happened after updating JAVA. if so go to eclipse.ini file in the same folder where eclipse existed. then change the line under -vm keyward to the new path of jre/bin folder to get the path go to programfiles -> java -> jre latest version -> bin folder copy the path and replace in line under -vm keyword.
Dana Erickson President and CEO, BCBS of Minnesota Dana Erickson has been president and CEO of Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota since October 2021. She sat down with Becker's to discuss the latest trends across the health insurance industry and what her company is doing to lower care costs, drive health equity and navigate the healthcare landscape in a post-pandemic world.
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Karen Teitelbaum, President & CEO Karen Teitelbaum will be stepping down from her post as CEO of Sinai Chicago at the end of the year. She has been with the health system since 2007, first as executive vice president and COO before becoming president and CEO in 2014. Ms. Teitelbaum spoke to Becker's in October about her greatest challenges and successes over the last 14 years and her plans for the future.
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These specialties report the most pronounced gender pay gaps Gender disparities in both representation and salary are greatest among cardiology and gastroenterology, according to research published July 12 in JAMA Internal Medicine.
Roberta Schwartz, PhD Roberta Schwartz, PhD, is executive vice president and chief innovation officer at Houston Methodist Hospital, the No. 1 hospital in Texas, according to U.S. News & World Report. Ms. Schwartz spoke with Becker's about the latest healthcare technology affecting her organization.
How hospitals are preparing for future public health crises The COVID-19 pandemic has tested hospitals' disaster preparedness plans and prompted them to assess crucial areas to prepare for future health crises. Some have strengthened partnerships with local organizations, invested in diagnostic testing platforms and updated workflows and oxygen infrastructure.
Matt Runyan Matt Runyan, CIO and vice president of IT at Oceanside, N.Y.-based Mount Sinai South Nassau, is splitting his time to make sure the COVID-19 vaccination process runs smoothly at the hospital while maintaining testing sites.
The average cost of a hospital COVID-19 test in each state The cost of getting a standard COVID-19 test at hospitals varies drastically by state, according to a nationwide study conducted by Hospital Pricing Specialists.
Dr. Atul Gawande on why COVID-19 vaccinations will test American society The distribution of COVID-19 vaccines in America will test a deeply divided society, and not just because of mistrust in vaccinations, Atul Gawande, MD, told New Yorker Editor David Remnick.
Jenni Alvey Asked what inspires them in their job, most provider-based CFOs will say, "caring for our patients," "making our community healthier," or "making healthcare more affordable and accessible." The COVID-19 pandemic has forced us to put those aims to the test.
Average signing bonuses for 5 recruited medical specialties Internal medicine physicians saw the greatest average signing bonus offered to recruits this year among the five most requested medical specialties, according to Merritt Hawkins' 2020 Review of Physician and Advanced Practitioner Recruiting Incentives. 041b061a72